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若何精进写作技能.

17个批驳思想的提问技能,助您深刻解析期刊论文

解析期刊论文的技能

曾在之前的电子报中谈及若何细读期刊论文。浏览学术论文须要有批驳性的思虑才能,有些教员为培养先生如许的才能,会将先生分红小组,从指定浏览物中遴选一个实验或研究,并加以详细评论辩论。这类教室活动其实让教员很是操心,后果却未必好。由于批驳思虑的才能的培养,其实不是一挥而就的,常常须要长时间有目标练习。在以下总结一些赞助解析学术论文时用到的提问技能,欲望有助于您控制批驳性思虑办法。

将这些成绩分为以下几个种别:

文献回想

有关研究或实验的须要性和重要性,作者能否有作有压服力的解释?即研究能否对人类社会或学术研究有供献?它要若何应用在真实世界的情境中?
作者能否有作充分的文献回想?
作者的逻辑能否有瑕疵?他们从过往研究中推导出的假定,能否有站不住脚的地方?
办法论

评价样本数量能否足够产生公则(推敲检定力分析)?
推敲样本特点,评价研究成果的公则性若何。例如,样天性否过于特别,乃至没法实用于某些群体?
作者遴选受测者的办法,能否有能够招致样本误差?
量测办法能否有瑕疵?(例如,能否能够误量到作者实验意图以外的数据?)
变项有哪些?自变量为何?因变量为何?
实验设计能否符合研究目标?假设未符合,作者可以若何改进?
研究成果

推敲该研究的目标,作者的分析能否切题?
就您的统计学知识,作者的研究论点,能否遭到支撑?研究成果能否真如作者所称的明显?文中能否有夸大的结论?
评论辩论

全体而言,作者提出的结论能否有依有据?
其他综分解绩

论文获登于哪类期刊?是顶尖期刊吗?
若期刊评价不佳,论文能否有瑕疵,乃至于只能登载在这类期刊上?
若实验或研究中有严重年夜瑕疵,仍得以登载于顶尖的期刊中,该期刊依然径行出版的能够缘由为何?能否有资金增援?或是该期刊其实不熟悉的论文的范畴?
论文能否有任何不明白的地方?
最后,想和大年夜家分享一个颇具启发意味的小故事。几天前,和同伙评论辩论起练习先生批驳思虑才能的战略,评论辩论的结论是,由于判思虑才能的养成,需长时间无认识的练习;若先生在大年夜学之前是在填鸭式教导背景下长大年夜,不曾无机会演习批驳性的思虑方法,那么先生在短时间内很难养成这类思想习气,也无怪乎,被传授请求批驳性思虑,他们会立时无所适从。

十个意思明白的学术写作词汇

我们在对学术论文停止英文编辑润饰时,重点之一是对遣词用字的编辑。我们的编辑师会删除语意模糊或具有双关意思的单词,调换成更详细且精准的单词。以下罗列一些这类的调换用法:

 

  1. Myriad

解释:(名词)有数;大年夜量

可用来调换:a lot

 

在学术论文中,应用a lot of examples或many experiences会使语意显得平淡,且用字不敷精确。

 

例句:The author suggested a myriad of solutions for the problem.

 

弥补解释:在英文生长的汗青中,myriad一向被算作名词应用,例如a myriad of men;直到十九世纪才有诗人将其作为描述词应用,例如myriad men。后来,这类具诗意的描述词用法很是风行,乃至被很多人误认是myriad唯一精确的用法。其实两种用法都精确,myriad源自于古希腊文mrias,在古希腊文中,mrias既可作为名词用在普通散文或数学,又可作为描述词,涌如今诗集里。

 

  1. Assert

解释:(动词)断言;宣称(某个现实或理念)

可用来代替:say

 

动词assert可应用于很多情况,但请勿太频繁应用,以避免显得单调。

 

例句:The author asserts that the issue is lacking a simple solution.

 

  1. Egregious

解释:(描述词)极糟的;令人震动的

可用来代替:bad

 

与其应用平常无奇的描述词bad,无妨相较之更高等的描述词egregious。

 

例句:The author asserts that other solutions to the problem are simply egregious.

 

  1. Erroneous

解释:(描述词)缺点的;不精确的

可用来代替:wrong

 

Erroneous这个单词非常好记,由于它的拼写跟发音会让人联想到error这个单词。

这个词异常合实用来描述作者不精确的谈吐:The author’s solutions for the problem were erroneous.

 

  1. Engender

解释:(动词)使产生;惹起

可用来代替:cause

 

例句:The author is not at all erroneous when she asserts that solving the problem will engender a better quality of life.

 

  1. Employ

解释:(动词)应用

可用来代替:use

 

Employ有两种意思,一是“雇用”的意思;二是“应用” 的意思,可用来替换use。

 

例句:The author employs rhetorical questions in order to assert her beliefs in a more persuasive manner.

 

  1. Salient

解释:(描述词)明显的;重要的

可用来代替:important

Salient可以用来调换main或important,但要当心别用错处所。

 

例句:The author’s most salient solution is rather egregious, because one can assert that her suggestions would fail to solve the problem.

 

  1. Reason

解释:(动词)透过逻辑思想来思虑、懂得、断定

可用来代替:think

Reason与employ一样,也有两种截然不合的意思。应用动词reason来代替think能赞助您进步文章程度。

 

例句:

The author reasons that we can solve the problem if we all work together, but the methods she asserts will help us do so are egregious.

 

She reasoned that something must be wrong.

 

  1. Advantageous

解释:(描述词)有益的;有助的;有益的

可用来代替:good

很多研究者在写作时,很轻易过度应用good一字,固然这个字眼确切可以用来描述美好的事物,但还有很多更棒的用词可以选择,如advantageous。

 

例句:

The author’s most salient solution is her most advantageous, as one can reason that it would effectively solve the problem.

 

…a trade agreement that is advantageous to both countries.

 

  1. Galvanize

解释:(动词)安慰、激起(或人);使惹起

可用来代替:motivate

 

假设您欲激起读者的激烈反响,使他们感同身受的对抗极恶之罪,否决不公不义的行动,又或是要开宗名义的惹起变革,这时候您无妨推敲应用galvanize这一措辞激烈的词。

 

例句:The group is hoping to galvanize public opinion against the proposed law.

 

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Insignificant 和 Nonsignificant 之间有何不合?论否定前缀的纤细差别

提问:

在浏览英语润稿师帮我悛改的论文时,我发明文中论述统计成果时用到的 insignificant一词全被改成了nonsignificant。请问这两个词有何不合?

—喷鼻港大年夜学某博士生

 

答复:
罕见具否定意义的前缀有 im-、non-、un-、in-,固然这些前缀常常可以调换应用,然则不合前缀在用法上仍有纤细的差别。比如说,前缀 in-因源自拉丁文,常常跟异样源于拉丁文的单词搭配。而前缀non-是最罕见的否定前缀,涌如今副词、描述词、名词前面,以表达相对或相反之意,例如:essential 与 nonessential。否定前缀in- 同 non-之间最重要的差别在于, 前缀in- 所表达的否定程度并不是相对相反的,而 non- 则是表达与主词干单词截然相对立或相反之意。

在触及学术性文章中的统计分析部分时,作者常常会将insignificant 和nonsignificant混淆。所谓明显性(significance)是统计学的术语,表示统计成果能证明变量之间存在着差别或接洽关系。在量性研究中,具有明显性的统计成果,代表研究者对统计成果的信度有信念。但是,即使曾经能确认变量间存有接洽关系性,进一步剖断其强度也是很重要的,而强度大年夜小则取决于样本数量等这类的身分。要考验明显性,必须将计算出来的测试值拿来跟某特定的临界值作比较。不管应用哪一种统计考验办法( 如:t考验或卡方考验),明显性的考验步调都是一样的。只需考验成果高于临界值就视作是明显,反之则视作是不明显(nonsignificant) 。

根据《柯林斯英语辞典》的定义,insignificant是“简直或相对上不具意义的”的意思。是以,将insignificant用来论述研究成果是不精确的用法。即使考验成果不具有明显性,变量间仍存有相干性,此考验成果仍能够具重要研究价值,若用insignificant来描述统计成果,则会误导读者认为此统计成果因不具明显影响而毫成心义。举例来讲,研究成果发明小儿麻痹与疫苗之间的接洽关系其实不具有明显性,但此研究发明能够关于研究疫苗的人传递了一个重要讯息。

综合上述所言, insignificant 这个字用来描述统计成果,是不铛铛的,究其缘由在于它具有“无功效”的意思。因此,若要表达统计考验成果不具或缺乏明显性,比较恰当的描述方法为 not statistically significant、a lack of statistical significance、non-statistically significant,或直接应用 nonsignificant。

 

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哪些句型实用于定义关键专有名词?

研究论文中用于定义专有名词的句型

在撰写学术论文时,作者常会借由定义关键词或词组,赞助读者懂得文章陈述的论点。关键词关于文章的懂得很重要,关于关键词含义的缺点懂得,能够招致对论点或文章部分外容的缺点懂得。实际上,对同一关键词的不合解释常常是形成研究者之间看法相左的重要缘由。是以,在学术写作中,作者务必留心能够存在的重要专有名词的不合诠释方法。
简介定义的句型

  1. It is necessary here to clarify exactly what is meant by …
  2. There is a degree of uncertainty around the terminology in …
  3. This shows a need to be explicit about exactly what is meant by the word X.
  4. X is a term frequently used in the literature, but to date there is no consensus about …

简略单纯的三段式定义句型


普通意义或应用上的意义

  1. The term X refers to …
  2. The term X encompasses A), B), and C).
  3. X can be defined as … It encompasses …
  4. X can be loosely described as a correlation.
  5. The term X has come to be used to refer to …
  6. The term X is generally understood to mean …
  7. The term X has been applied to situations where students …
  8. In the literature, the term tends to be used to refer to …
  9. The broad use of the term X is sometimes equated with …
  10. Whereas X refers to the operations of …, Y refers to the …
  11. The term disease refers to a biological event characterized by …
  12. The term X is a relatively new name for a Y, commonly referred to…
  13. In broad biological terms, X can be defined as any stimulus that is …
  14. Defined as XYZ, obesity is now considered a worldwide epidemic and is associated with …

 

指出专有名词难以定义的缘由

  1. A generally accepted definition of X is lacking.
  2. Unfortunately, X remains a poorly defined term.
  3. The term X embodies a multitude of concepts which …
  4. A further definition is given by Smith (1982) who describes …
  5. In the field of language teaching, various definitions of X are found.
  6. Smith (2001) identified four abilities that might be subsumed under the term X: a) …
  7. Although differences of opinion still exist, there appears to be some agreement that X refers to …
  8. X is a commonly-used notion in language learning and yet it is a concept difficult to define precisely.

 

指定专有名词在文章或论文中的应用方法

  1. The term X will be used solely when referring to …
  2. In the present report, X was therefore defined in terms of …
  3. In this essay, the term X will be used in its broadest sense to refer to all …
  4. In this paper, the term that will be used to describe this phenomenon is X.
  5. In this dissertation, the terms X and Y are used interchangeably to mean …
  6. Throughout this thesis, the term education is used to refer to informal systems as well as …
  7. While a variety of definitions of the term X have been suggested, this paper will use the definition first suggested by Smith (1968) who saw it as …

 

援用他人定义:有名作者

  1. For Smith (2001), fluency means/refers to …
  2. Smith (2001) uses the term ‘fluency’ to refer to …
  3. Smith (1954) was apparently the first to use the term …
  4. The term ‘fluency’ is used by Smith (2001) to refer to …
  5. Macro-stabilization policy is defined by Smith (2003: 119) as ‘… …’
  6. This definition is close to those of Smith (2012) and Jones (2013) who define X as …
  7. In 1987, sports psychologist John Smith popularized the term ‘X’ to describe …
  8. According to a definition provided by Smith (2001:23), fluency is ‘the maximally …
  9. Aristotle defines the imagination as ‘the movement which results upon an actual sensation.’
  10. One of the first people to define nursing was Florence Nightingale (1860), who wrote: ‘… …’
  11. Chomsky writes that a grammar is a ‘device of some sort for producing the ….’ (1957, p.11).
  12. Smith, has shown that, as late as 1920, Jones was using the term ‘X’ to refer to particular …
  13. The term ‘matter’ is used by Aristotle in four overlapping senses. First, it is the underlying … Secondly, it is the potential which …
  14. Smith et al. (2002) have provided a new definition of health: ‘health is a state of being with physical, cultural, psychological …’

 

援用他人定义:普通作者

  1. Validity is the degree to which an assessment process or device measures what it is intended to measure (Smith et al., 1986).

评述定义

欲望以上句型对您在论文中定义关键专有名词有所赞助。

 

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如安在论文中应用 “归类”和“列表”句型?

用于“归类”及“列表”的句型

研究论文中常会用到具归类功能和列表功能的句型。归类句型经常使用在论文中较前面的章节。列表句型则用于将浩大的信息以某种方法停止罗列或归类,以便于以后的体系性处理或出现。在归类时,我们按照事物的合营性来分类与定名。这么一来,读者可了如指掌同一类事物所共有的特点或特点。另外,归类也可用于出现事物间的差别。在研究论文中,很多作者常以归类的方法向读者简介新议题。
普通归类句型

例句:

  1. It has become commonplace to distinguish ‘passive’ from ‘active’ forms of X.
  2. Bone is generally classified into two types: X bone, also known as …, and Y bone or …
  3. Systems theory distinguishes two different types of X, i.e. social and semantic Xs (Al-Masry 2013).
  4. There are two main types of memory: declarative and non-declarative memory.
  5. Declarative memory can be broken down into X and Y.
  6. Aristotle’s systematic treatises may be grouped in several divisions: logic, psychological works, physical …
  7. The works of Aristotle fall under three headings: (1) dialogues and …; (2) collections of facts and …; and (3) systematic works.
  8. There are two basic approaches currently being adopted in research into X. One is the Y approach and the other is …
  9. Associative learning can be categorized into classical and operant conditioning.
  10. Classical conditioning was first …
  11. Generally, spectra typing provides two types of information: band intensity pattern and band number.

特定归类句型

例句:

  1. Individuals were classified as belonging to upper or lower categories of …
  2. Smith and Jones (2003) argue that there are two broad categories of Y, which are: a) … and b) …
  3. For Aristotle, motion is of four kinds: (1) motion which …; (2) motion which …; (3) motion which …; and (4) motion which …
  4. To better understand the mechanisms of X and its therapeutic implications, Smith et al. (2011) classified X into 3 distinct types using …

评述归类体系

简介列表

  1. This topic can best be treated under three headings: X, Y and Z.
  2. The key aspects of management can be listed as follows: X, Y and Z.
  3. There are three reasons why the English language has become so dominant.
  4. These are: …
  5. There are two types of effect which result when a patient undergoes X. These are …
  6. The disadvantages of the new approach can be discussed under three headings, which are: …
  7. The Three Voices for Mass is divided into six sections. These are: the Kyrie, Gloria, ….
  8. Appetitive stimuli have three separable basic functions. Firstly, they … Secondly, they …
  9. This section has been included for several reasons: it is …; it illustrates …; and it describes …

援用他人列表

  1. Smith and Jones (1991) list X, Y and Z as the major causes of infant mortality.
  2. Smith (2003) lists the main features of X as follows: it is X; it is Y; and it has Z.
  3. Smith (2003) argues that there are two broad categories of Y, which are: a) … and b) …
  4. Smith (2003) suggests three conditions for its acceptance. Firstly, X should be …

Secondly, it needs to be … Thirdly, …

  1. For Aristotle, motion is of four kinds: (1) motion which …; (2) motion which …; (3) motion which …; and (4) motion which …

 

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五个逐日奉行的好习气,晋升您论文写作的效力

我比来在一次喷鼻港中文大年夜学的写作课上,约请了一名博士生A君分享他用一个夏天的时间完成学位论文撰写的经历。在本期电子报中,我将结合A君的经历,给仍在撰写或行将撰写学位论文的您一些有益的建议。

找到属于您的写作安乐窝

A君平常平凡都在他家客堂的书桌上写作,那是张用了好几年、平铺直叙的旧书桌。客堂空间既没有仿Spa的设计,也没有幽静的禅风意境,但A君其实不在乎,对他而言,客堂的书桌就最温馨,当他想看电视时就有电视可以看,想吃零食时间隔厨房也很近。

不管是星巴克、海滩、卧室,或图书馆,找到能让您专心写作的安乐窝。

每天抽出时间写作

A君的准绳是将学位论文撰写对待成一份任务,也就是说像下班打卡般,他筹划七到八个小时的时间专注于写作。除有时在过程当中歇息一下,他唯一搁笔的时间就是等待指导传授答复其询问的时间。除此以外,他就像是以写作维生般一向地书写。

写论文不是兴趣爱好,不克不及比及余暇的时间再写。您必定要试着每天预留至少两个小时的时间,养成每天写一点的习气。不要给本身任何偷懒的饰辞,您得不时告诫本身:假设没有每天的集腋成裘,你永久没法完成学位论文!

手边摆放一本笔记本
A君总会在桌上摆几张空白纸,便利他顺手写下突如其来的灵感,或便利整顿思路。

除纸笔书写,也能够应用软件(像是Evernote 或 Google),在智能型手机或平板上组织想法主意。

打铁要趁热

假设您在凌晨三点时醒来,脑筋清醒、灵感出现,且没法再入眠,不如起床停止写作。A君常在半夜醒来后,感触感染到论文的压力,没法再入眠,因而索性起床开端写作。

一有灵感,就要及时记录上去,别浪费创意的火花。且一有点子触发您的写作欲望,您就必定得立时开端写作,相对不让创作能量平白消掉。

固然我谈到灵感,但切切不克不及以没灵感为饰辞而不写作。

稍后再停止校订

在写论文初稿的过程当中,请专注于论文的内容,切切不要消费大年夜量的时间、精力,只为了写出完美的句子或段落。您可以将这些任务留到以后的校订时间。另外,指导传授看过文稿后,您必定还需根据反应看法做大年夜幅修改。

终究您将会以本身的成就为傲。预祝写作高兴!

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